Why do I Reference?
All sources that you have used in your work, whether directly quoted or referred to, must be referenced. It is correct academic practice to recognise the contributions of others in this way and it averts the risk of plagiarism.
When do I reference?
References must be given in the text of your piece of work whenever you use external evidence and information, such as:
• Direct quotes from a book or journal article
• Using someone’s ideas
• An author is mentioned in the piece of work
• Figures, graphs or other data are used
The system of referencing that the School adopts is the Harvard system, because it is the quickest, easiest and most user-friendly system available. The Harvard system consists of two simple elements:
1. A very short reference in text
2. A full reference in a separate list at the end of the piece of work. This reference list should be in alphabetical order according to the surname of the author. It should read as one entire list (journals, books, chapters, newspapers, etc) although websites should be listed separately.
1. In Text: references in text include two or three pieces of information, depending on the situation. If you are:
a) Citing an author’s idea but not including a direct quote then you require two pieces of information
• Author’s name
• Date of publication
E.g. Dennis and Macaulay (2007) argue that….
b) If you are citing a direct quote or part of a direct quote then you require three pieces of information
• Author’s name
• Date of publication
• Page numbers
This information should be presented at the end of a sentence or directly after a quote and should be in brackets. For example:
• (Smith, 2003. p. 16)
• (Dennis and Macaulay, 2007. p. 47)
• (Bellman et al, 1994. pp. 46-48)
Remember to use quotation marks and if the quote is more than three lines you should indent the quote and present in single line spacing without quotation marks. For example:
Market orientation is a philosophy that is concerned with identifying the needs and wants of customers and tailoring products and services to satisfy these demands, whilst remaining firmly focused on the competition. In order to achieve this philosophy, there is a need to develop and exploit a culture of improvisation within the organisation, which involves all functions. Creative thinking and dialogue between individuals and functions will enable the organisation to innovate, remain proactive and adapt to the dynamic needs of the customer. An organisation incorporating improvisation in their marketing activities will develop long-term relationships with the customer base and enjoy enhanced performance, in all respects. Dennis and Macaulay (2007, p. 12)
2. In Reference List: references in the list include the three pieces of information above but also include additional information:
• Title of book – all titles must be in italics
• Place of publication
• Name of publisher
Widdowson, H.G. (1975), Stylistics and the Teaching of Literature, London, Longman.
Babiak, P., and Hare, R. D., (2006), Snakes in Suits: When Psychopaths go to Work, New York, Harper Collins.
In Text: references are the same as references to books. The Reference List is a little bit different, however, and must include the following information:
• Authors name
• Date of publication
• Title of article
• Title of Journal
• Journal volume number
• Journal Issue number
• Page numbers for the entire article
Michaelson, C., (2001), ‘Is Business Ethics Philosophy or Sophism?’, Business Ethics: A European Review, 10, 4, pp. 331-339.
Jenkins, L. and Kramer, C. (1978) ‘Small Group Processes: Learning From Women’, Women’s Studies International Quarterly, 1, 1, pp. 67-84.
The actual title of the article is not in italics, but in single quotation marks.
The title of the journal is in italics.
Your text books will all include hundreds of references to other authors and sometimes you will need to refer to these without actually reading the original work. This is not a problem. All you need to do is to include a “cited in” reference as an In Text reference. For example:
(Dennis, 2004, cited in Brassington and Pettit, 2006. p. 17)
(Douglas, 1931, cited in Smith et al, 2004. p. 339)
In the Reference List include both the original reference and the secondary (text book) reference.
We must at this stage offer a word of warning. Far too many students use many internet sources to research and complete their work. You must be very careful about using such sources as they are usually not academically suitable. Wikipedia, for example, is NOT an academic source even though it might be useful and interesting. Many of the so-called online Business Tutorials are not credible and should not be used. Simple advice: read books and academic journal articles instead of websites.
Some websites are useful, of course, for example government departments, business websites, etc. The Harvard system has no definitive way of referencing this yet and some people disagree but our advice is to:
Include, in the text, the author of the site or details of the organisation, charity, government department etc. In the reference list include these details plus the full web address and the date you accessed the material. For example:
Repak, N. (2005) ‘Time management’ http://www.gradresources.org/articles/time_management.shtml (13 June 2005)
Sometimes you will not be referring to articles on the web but simply websites, in this case please use the full web address and the date you accessed the information, for example:
http://www.gradresources.org/articles/time_management.shtml (13 June 2005)
Obviously if you’re using the web to read journal articles you will not use the web address but you will use the journal reference as discussed above.
A Reference to a Newspaper
You may often want to use newspapers as a source of information, especially for up to date discussions on current events. Often newspaper articles, however, do not have an author and therefore need a specific reference when you use a quote. For example if I quote from a piece on the Iraq War I might want to use a quote to back up my point:
Tony Blair “has made his position clear” (The Times 02/11/2003 p.23).
And in the Reference List at the end of your work just repeat the information, minus the page number and plus the fact that the quote comes from an editorial, and the place of publication.
The Times (02/11/2003) Editorial, London.
What do you do when the writer’s name is given? You can either do the reference as above, but include the writer’s name in the reference at the end, or you can do the reference like this:
‘..he adopted a standard macho attitude’ (Voynet 2000 p.23)
and in the List at the end:
Voynet, D. (28/11/2000) ‘Dear John’, article in The Guardian, London
You would do the reference this second way if the writer’s name was important. Here it is, because Voynet is the Minister who was offended by Prescott. If the writer was just one of the journalists on The Guardian, you’d probably do the reference the first way.
MINTEL MARKETING INTELLIGENCE. (Year). Title. City of publication: Publisher
MINTEL MARKETING INTELLIGENCE. (1998). Designer wear: Mintel Marketing Report. London: Mintel International Group
2. Company reports
Organization. (Unpublished, year). Title. Report dated date
NSPCC. (Unpublished, 1988) NSPCC submission to the Home Office
Advisory Group on the admissibility of video recorded interviews. Report dated September 1988
Whether we like it or not, referencing has to be completed in all academic work. If you follow the steps outlined in this document you should have no problems with referencing in your future work. Failure to reference correctly will result in a loss of marks, so think on!